Panagiotis Leontios

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Ανάλυση Συστημάτων βάσει Διαδικασιών – Process Oriented System Analysis

In Business, Engineering, IT on 20/05/2016 at 12:56 pm

DFD-Coad-and-Yourdon-Object-Oriented-Analysis-modelΗ δομημένη ανάλυση (και ο σχεδιασμός που έπεται), υπακούει στην αρχιτεκτονική έννοια «η φόρμα (form) ακολουθεί πάντα τη λειτουργία (function)». Οι  λειτουργίες ενός Πληροφοριακού Συστήματος (ΠΣ), είναι οι διαδικασίες που μετατρέπουν ή μετασχηματίζουν (transform) δεδομένα εφαρμογών. Ως εκ τούτου, στην δομημένη ανάλυση, δίνουμε έμφαση στις διαδικασίες (processes) και στις ροές δεδομένων (data flows), από και προς αυτές τις διαδικασίες.

Η δομημένη ανάλυση βασίζεται στην θεωρία συστημάτων, η οποία προϋποθέτει ότι τα εισερχόμενα δεδομένα (inputs) τροφοδοτούν τις διαδικασίες, προκειμένου αυτές να παράγουν εξερχόμενα δεδομένα (outputs). Για να συμπληρώσουμε το μοντέλο συστημάτων (παρακάτω σχήμα 1), θα πρέπει να υπάρχει και κάποιο είδος ανατροφοδότησης (feedback), προκειμένου να εξαλειφθεί η εντροπία του συστήματος, δηλαδή να εξασφαλίσουμε το σύστημα από έκπτωση.

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Σχήμα 1 (Μοντέλο Συστημάτων)

Για να αναλύσουμε εννοιολογικά σύνθετα συστήματα όπως τα πληροφοριακά, αναλύουμε τμήματά τους μεμονωμένα. Μπορούμε δηλαδή να εξετάσουμε τα εισερχόμενα, εξερχόμενα και τις διαδικασίες ξεχωριστά και, μετά, όλα αυτά, να τα ολοκληρώσουμε για να παράγουμε ένα ενοποιημένο σύστημα. Καθώς οι διαδικασίες των συστημάτων γίνονται ολοένα πολυπλοκότερες, συνεχίζοντας με την ίδια μέθοδο, μελετάμε τμήματα των διαδικασιών αυτών και κατόπιν τα ολοκληρώνουμε. Τα τμήματα αυτά των διαδικασιών θα πρέπει να είναι αυτάρκη, μικρά συστήματα. Αυτά τα μικρότερα συστήματα αποτελούν μια ιεραρχία συστατικών συστημάτων (system components hierarchy), τέτοια ώστε, ένα συστατικό σε οποιοδήποτε επίπεδο να είναι από μόνο του ένα σύστημα με συστατικά. Κάθε σύστημα, ανεξαρτήτως επιπέδου στο οποίο βρίσκεται, έχει τα δικά του εισερχόμενα, εξερχόμενα και τις δικές του διαδικασίες και ανατροφοδότηση. Στο χαμηλότερο επίπεδο της ιεραρχίας είναι τα στοιχειώδη ή τερματικά συστατικά, τα οποία δεν μπορούν να διαιρεθούν περισσότερο και διατηρούν τα χαρακτηριστικά του συστήματός τους.

[…]

Η συνέχεια του άρθρου Process Oriented System Analysis περιλαμβάνει:

  • Τις Βασικές Αρχές της Σχεδίασης
  • Τις δραστηριότητες της Δομημένης Ανάλυσης
  • Την ανάπτυξη Διαγράμματος Περιβάλλοντος
  • Την ανάπτυξη Διαγράμματος Ροής Δεδομένων, και
  • Την ανάπτυξη Λεξικού Δεδομένων

Digital and Social Media Marketing – The importance of ongoing monitoring (part VI)

In Business, IT on 05/05/2016 at 11:16 am

ongoing monitoring#1 | Introduction

In this last chapter we are going to talk about the importance of monitoring and learning from your engagements. It is not surprising and it still does happen that businesses will go out to social media networks, spend a lot of money and at the end of the process have no idea whether they have been successful, or seen any benefit or actually any return on their investment. Campaigns do not work in isolation. Campaigns do need to be a part of a plan and that plan should necessitate that you learn from and reflect upon what information you can take from your buyer persona in relation to your content. All of your social media networks of significance provide feedback; provide data that can be used to improve, to modify and to change direction if necessary for a campaign. They can also be used to compare with others and they can also be used to understand what the buyer persona is responding to. All of this means that it is worth time and effort to analyze the data that is available to you possibly right now. There is a lot of data out there and ultimately it is the understanding of what social networks provide to you and being able to understand from the social networks what you need to do next.

The biggest focus of social media marketing is that we promote our solution online and we reach out consumer online. That is why this strategy is very important for us because we can analyze social marketing campaigns which we can order and assign to our team members and then we can analyze the effectiveness, the return on investment even with the smallest budget to reach the targeted people that we want and it is important to use those channels which work best.

A weekly meeting in the office is a good practice to make sure that you are reviewing activity quite regularly, it is important to review things quite a lot. In a new campaign that goes live you should tend to log in to new statistics every day but you can see a more full effect especially on overall traffic levels or organic search levels on a more longer term basis so you can have key statistics that you can pull from your online tools across the business on weekly basis and have that catch up in your marketing meeting which allows you to make decisions on whether you continue to invest in certain areas or invest in something new, and try something else because something is dropping off. I would say weekly is a good standpoint to have from a monitoring and evaluating point of view.

Monitoring is definitely an ongoing process. We could be having monthly reports for this process. First of all you could be asking from different departments responding from social media, reporting from websites, reporting from the campaign, from the planners’ part that is, and you could also have one project manager analyzing data and trying to find results from different platforms. One negative of digital advertising platforms is that they are not a lot of synergies between them. There are huge competitors like Facebook and Google so they are not allowing third parties to connect figures. What you have to do is take the results of different platforms and try to translate them in one report coming from you so that there is no golden rule or platform taking all in one and this is the worst thing online. When it is a PPC campaign you should do it every day, for SEO on a weekly basis and for content it is every hour because you have to see how competitors and funs are responding, and especially if you are using social media for customer service, you have to be there.

See the rest of the article, including the following contents:

#2 | Understanding of social capital

#3 | Accessing data in Google Analytics

#4 | Accessing data from Facebook

#5 | Accessing Data from Twitter

#6 | Using spreadsheets to analyze and populate reports

#7 | Learning from digital results

#8 | PPC reports

Digital and Social Media Marketing – Choosing the right digital profiles (part V)

In Business, IT on 11/04/2016 at 9:48 am

digital profile#1 | Introduction

We have already introduced the concept of the Buyer Persona (BP) and with the concept of our digital platform, we are really talking about the range of social media that we may already be familiar with and those that may come along in the future and those that we are less familiar with. All serve the same purpose for different BPs. What we are dealing with is different technologies, different purposes for these platforms and in those platforms different actions that are performed and are an opportunity to present to the BP.

Obviously, you have heard of Facebook, Tweeter, Snapchat and a range of others. All of which you might have experienced in some way. All these give an opportunity to reach out to the audience, to reach out to different BPs and to actually contact them in a way that is meaningful for them, meaningful for your brand and meaningful for the product. We are going to look at some of these in detail and look at what can be done to actually maximize the benefit of focusing the right BP to the right platform.

So we go about researching the right digital profiles for the right digital audiences by firstly having an understanding of the different sites, areas and platforms that exist and what they can offer for us. For example, LinkedIn is very different from Facebook and also very different from Twitter in terms of what it can offer, in terms of the right type of candidate for our business. We would speak to the websites themselves, look at the different offerings that they are able to give to us so that we can have an understanding of the type of candidate that would exist on those different areas.

You think that Facebook is better for ages 25-40; you think that search is better for ages 35+ but you only think. In digital you can measure. Sometimes you can see conversions coming from nowhere. So you have to see, test and revise.

The digital communication channel that many companies use with their customers is Facebook because it is the primary social media in the country, maybe Twitter, Instagram and Pinterest because their target group is mainly women for instance and YouTube because they are probably trying to get a younger set of customers. They also usually have email marketing in which they set out their weekly newsletters to registered clients and Google+ and Google Maps which give their clients more information for easily finding them.

Read the rest of the article, which covers the following topics:

#2 | Facebook

#3 | YouTube

#4 | Twitter

#5 | LinkedIn

#6 | PPC optimization

#7 | What makes content go viral?

#8 | How to create viral content?

 

Digital and Social Media Marketing – How Campaigns fit into Organization Strategy (part IV)

In Business, IT on 16/03/2016 at 12:59 pm

organizational strategy#1 | Introduction

There are four different strategies that might be useful for an organization to consider when it comes to digital:

  • The first strategic decision is whether you are going into a digital approach at all. This will involve resourcing and providing content in that area. In terms of marketing some of the key areas that you’ll be focusing on is understanding the customers and trying to see how the consumer interacts via social media, search engines, emails or any other touch points with the organization and then feeding that information into developing of products and services and ultimately what you can search there is how people interact with you.
  • The second aspect for you to try to look into is the sales strategy; this will also help you identify the key influences in your area and then work with them to develop your products and services.
  • The third strategy is operational where social media can be used for internal organizational documents and content creation and,
  • The fourth is the customer service through which people can provide you with inquires using social media.

Campaigns fit into our overall strategy by understanding and relating to and complimenting what we are doing as a business and by looking at the business plan and what the focus for the actual business is at that point in time. For example, if we open another office in a different location then we will have a digital marketing campaign and strategy that looks and focuses on the promotion our business within that particular area. It may also relate to a new product or a new service that we release. So, again, if we recently started to recruit in the film and production sector so we had a lot of digital marketing activity that root together and revolved together around the film industry and production industry, that opened up new social media channel for us to trial. It opened up new key words on search engines for us to optimize against and therefore all that came from the business decision and business plan to either open an office in a new location or to actually focus on recruiting on a new sector. That filters down in the business in terms of the staff that you hire, in terms of the marketing activity that you undergo, in terms of analysis and monitoring the responses that come from these different locations and sectors to ensure that you are deploying activity correctly across all of the new different areas of the business. So digital marketing is just another part of that to make sure that it works properly and produces and turns into a viable commercial channel.

See the rest of the article, covering also the remaining following areas:

#2 | Company business plan example

#3 | Key elements of campaign management – Gantt chart

#4 | Risk Management

#5 | Digital project management tools and techniques

#6 | Project plan monitoring and review

#7 | Marketing automation

#8 | PCC campaign planning

Digital and Social Media Marketing – Selecting Channels (part II)

In Business, IT on 14/12/2015 at 1:02 pm

digitalmarketing#1 | Understanding the different nature of digital channels

 

In the modern internet era, with the introduction of the www most marketing activities happen on the internet using channels such as:

 

  • Search Engines (SE)
  • Social Media
  • Websites
  • E-mail
  • Mobile Marketing
  • Affiliate Marketing

In countries with high internet penetration, the internet offers increasingly important marketing communication and digital media form an integral and regular part of it.

The different digital marketing channels will be examined according to the following characteristics:

  1. Geographic
  2. Demographic
  3. Digital fit

in order to determine the most effective channels based upon the “buyer persona” -BP; a fictional individual developed based on one organization’s researched profile of its typical customer.

All above channels will be examined, plus the pay channels. Also, consideration of community focused engagement through these channels will be given.

Channels depend on the client and the project. Based on our business objectives, we should research our BP’s preferences for media use before we invest into development of a message. Once the channels are identified, they are used to convey different content for meeting different business objectives; we should differentiate for instance between awareness and sales.

See the rest of the article, and engage with the following areas:

#2 | Search Engines – national differences

#3 | Social Media – national differences

#4 | Email marketing and how it can be used

#5 | Affiliate marketing and how it can be used

#6 | Mobile marketing and how it can be used

#7 | Paid channels overview – search and social

#8 | Community focused engagement

Digital and Social Media Marketing Introduced (part I)

In Business, IT on 10/12/2015 at 11:38 am

strategy#1 | Digital Marketing is a Strategic Decision

 

Strategy is basically an organization’s sense of purpose (as stated precisely by its mission). Its three elements are:

  • Analysis: where are we now?
  • Development: where do we want to be?
  • Implementation: how to get there?

Strategic Planning is an organization’s process of defining its long-term direction and the plan for prioritizing its resources in order to implement a strategy.

Digital Marketing (DM) is:

  • Α strategic decision increasingly adopted by many organizations for the engagement of their audiences; this holds regardless size or type of organizations.
  • About using digital media in order to understand the audiences and what they need.
  • Core and key in tracking branding, accountability of investment and ROI.
  • To be expected to produce tangible results after one year of investing into it which is considered to be a reasonable period of time for such an investment.

In the full article you can see the rest four (4) points related to Digital and Social Media Marketing:

#2 | SWOT analysis and SMART objectives serve DM Strategic Planning

#3 | Identifying our Position within Digital Business Ecosystem

#4 | Consumer’s Journey to On Line Purchase

#5 | Digitizing Old Terms

 

Το ERP με λίγα λόγια

In Business, IT on 23/04/2015 at 11:33 am

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANING (ERP) Η υπόσχεση της Ολοκληρωμένης Επιχειρησιακής Διαχείρισης μέσω της τεχνολογίας, μπορούμε να δεχθούμε πλέον ότι εκπληρώνεται, σε ότι αφορά τουλάχιστον τους προμηθευτές της τεχνολογίας. Τα σωστά συστήματα ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning), προσφέρουν ακριβώς αυτήν την διαχείριση και πολύ περισσότερα, το καθένα βέβαια μέσα από την δική του οπτική γωνία.

Όμως, η επιτυχημένη επιχειρησιακή διαχείριση, παραμένει ακόμα ένα θέμα που εξαρτάται – σε πολύ μεγάλο βαθμό – από τη γνώση και την κρίση των ανθρώπων που χρησιμοποιούν την τεχνολογία.

Η τεχνολογία ERP ειδικότερα, μπορεί να ιδωθεί σαν ένα «κουτί» που περιέχει πολλές χρήσιμες λύσεις για μια επιχείρηση, αλλά δεν αναιρεί την ανάγκη κάποιου ο οποίος θα πρέπει να μπορέσει να αντιληφθεί και να διατυπώσει (επαρκώς) το πρόβλημα στο οποίο οι λύσεις αυτές θα εφαρμοστούν.

Πολύ περισσότερο μάλιστα όταν, στην περίπτωση του ERP, οι λύσεις που προσφέρονται, δεν αφορούν απλώς στην αυτοματοποίηση κάποιων τυποποιημένων, λειτουργικά αυτόνομων δραστηριοτήτων, αλλά διατρέχουν μια επιχείρηση από άκρη σε άκρη και έχουν επιπτώσεις σε διοικητικές διεργασίες, σε όλα σχεδόν τα επίπεδα.

 Η προσπάθεια αναζήτησης της κατάλληλης στρατηγικής, μέσω της οποίας η υπόσχεση του ERP μπορεί να μετασχηματιστεί σε πράξη, σχετίζεται άμεσα με βασικές αρχές που διέπουν τον λειτουργικό σχεδιασμό της τεχνολογίας, διατυπωμένες από την οπτική του τι πρέπει να κάνει και γιατί – όχι του πως θα το υλοποιεί αυτό.

Δείτε τη συνέχεια του άρθρου “Το ERP με λίγα λόγια“.

Maximizing ERP ROI for midsize companies

In Business, IT on 23/02/2012 at 2:13 pm

Over the past few years, when companies have been asked to rank their top IT spending priorities, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applications have consistently remained near the top of the list. The amount they indicate they will spend is growing at the rate of almost 7 percent each year and it is likely to surpass the $10 billion mark globally in 2012.1

This is no surprise: ERP systems are the core business applications for many companies, connecting different parts of their organizations and facilitating the flow of information between business functions. At the same time, a substantial number of ERP implementations are not successful and others do not deliver the expected
return on investment. In particular, midsize businesses struggle with wringing the most value from their ERP applications.

As a result, many midsize businesses are left wondering if upgrading their ERP application or installing a new one is worth it and many rely on spreadsheets and manual processes to fill the void. Midsize businesses should take heart, however. ERP applications can provide them with cost savings, improve operations and support organizational growth. In this paper, we highlight the common reasons why midsize companies often do not realize significant ROI with their ERP system implementations and suggest solutions for getting the most value from their applications.

Read the whole paper

Τα social media είναι το μέλλον της εταιρικής επικοινωνίας

In Business, IT on 21/02/2012 at 11:14 am

Δραστηριοποιηθείτε στα social media: μη μένετε στάσιμοι. Αυτή είναι η συμβουλή που θα ήθελα να δώσω στις επιχειρήσεις και στους οργανισμούς που αναρωτιούνται αν πρέπει να δραστηριοποιηθούν στα social media. Στην προηγούμενή μου θέση ως Social Media Architect του Παγκόσμιου Οικονομικού Φόρουμ, προσπαθήσαμε -και πιστεύω το καταφέραμε- να φέρουμε ένα σημαντικό αλλά «κλειστό» event σε επαφή με τον έξω κόσμο μέσω των social media. Σκεφτείτε το: πότε άλλοτε μπορούσαν οι πολίτες να επικοινωνήσουν με τους παγκόσμιους ηγέτες μέσω Twitter και να μάθουν από πρώτο χέρι μέσω των social media τι συμβαίνει στην ετήσια συνάντηση του Παγκόσμιου Οικονομικού Φόρουμ στο Νταβός;

Διαβάστε όλο το άρθρο του Ματίας Λούφκενς,  δημοσιογράφου, επικεφαλής της Βurson Μarsteller Digital Europe (ΕΘΝΟΣ).

Integrated Business Framework

In Business, IT on 05/01/2012 at 5:18 pm

Η σύγχρονη επιχείρηση, προκειμένου να είναι ανταγωνιστική, παραγωγική και αποτελεσματική, καθώς και να ανταποκρίνεται στο μέγιστο δυνατό βαθμό και στον ελάχιστο δυνατό χρόνο στις απαιτήσεις και προκλήσεις της αγοράς, απαιτεί πλέον αυτό που ονομάζουμε Ολοκληρωμένη Πλατφόρμα Εργασίας, ως πλατφόρμα εργασίας και υλοποίησης των επιχειρηματικών διαδικασιών που έχουν προκύψει από τις μεθόδους και τακτικές που χρησιμοποιεί κάθε επιχείρηση για την προώθηση της στρατηγικής της.

Μια τέτοια πλατφόρμα, στην πληρέστερη μορφή της, αποτελεί τη μετεξέλιξη αυτού που παλαιότερα εμφανιζόταν με τον γενικό τίτλο Management Information System (MIS). Ουσιαστικά, βασίζεται στις αρχές της Διαχείρισης Διαδικασιών (BPM), της Διαχείρισης Ποιότητας (TQM) και χρησιμοποιεί εργαλεία που καλύπτουν όλο το εύρος των γνωστών τεχνολογιών από τις Βάσεις Δεδομένων (RDBMS) έως τις Web Enabled εφαρμογές. Έτσι, οι βασικές συνιστώσες ενός τέτοιου συστήματος χωρίς να εξετάζουμε αυτή τη στιγμή την βαρύτητα ή αναγκαιότητα κάθε υποσυστήματος, είναι:

•    ERP    (Enterprise Resource PlanningInformation Management)
•    BPM    (Business Process Management)
•    CRM    (Customer Relationship Management)
•    CMS    (Content Management System)
•    ITS    (Issue Tracking System)

Δείτε όλο το άρθρο Integrated Business Framework που σηματοδοτεί την αρχή μιας σειράς παρουσιάσεων για το σύγχρονο πλαίσιο εργασίας των επιχειρήσεων.

Π. Λεόντιος

 

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